Vol. 13, No. 1 (Jan 2017)
Fundamental Liberties in the Malayan Constitution and the Search for a Balance, 1956–1957, by Joseph M. Fernando and Shanthiah Rajagopal (University of Malaya, Malaysia)
Abstract: This article examines the framing of the section on fundamental liberties in the 1957 Malayan constitution and analyses the underlying intentions and concerns of the framers and the various influences on the drafting process through an investigation of the primary constitutional documents. The section on fundamental liberties sought to provide for the growth of a democratic way of life in independent Malaya (now Malaysia). The Reid commission, which framed the initial draft of the constitution, provided strong constitutional safeguards for basic fundamental liberties and rights such as personal liberty; equality of citizenship; freedom of movement, speech, assembly and association; freedom of religion and rights in respect of education and private property. Such provisions in most post-war Commonwealth constitutions drew little controversy. The complex multiracial and multireligious Malayan environment, however, required the framers to balance the competing demands of the various communities, on one hand, and the powers of the state over the citizens, on the other. Creating this balance proved challenging to the framers in attempting to provide for the basic fundamental liberties found in most modern constitutions, while accommodating some local peculiarities.
Iran and Southeast Asia: An Analysis of Iran’s Policy of “Look to the East,” by Mohammad Soltaninejad (University of Tehran, Iran)
Abstract: This article studies the sudden rise in the economic and commercial relations between Iran and Southeast Asian countries from 2007 to 2011 and its collapse afterwards. The author attributes this phenomenon to two factors: first, politics’ priority over economy in Iran’s foreign policy during the years Iran adopted the policy of “look to the East” and, second, characteristics of Iran’s relations with the great powers of the United States and China. Based on these, the author contends that Iran’s bid to establish firm economic relations with the East in order to manage and reduce political pressures from the West is the reason for sudden rise in Iran – Southeast Asia relations. The rising trend in the relations was reversed from 2011 onward mainly due to the United States persuasion of the Southeast Asian countries to reduce cooperation with Iran. The author further discusses that the dynamics of Iran- China relations have also limited the scope of Iran – Southeast Asia cooperation.
Gendered Citizenship: A Case Study of paid Filipino Male Live-in Caregivers in Toronto, by Dionisio Nyaga and Rose Ann Torres (University of Toronto, Canada)
Abstract: Philippines is considered as a major provider of caregiving services in Canada. Caregiving has historically been identified as feminine labour. As such, providing paid caregiving has mostly be identified as immigrant women work. Policies are thus built to control this work and mostly they tie with the masculine culture of the society. In Canada, Living-in caregiving is very gendered and masculine, and as such it discriminated men of colour. This paper is focused on a case study that was done in 2014 in Toronto. There were three paid Filipino male live-in caregivers who participated in this study. This study applied qualitative narrative research methodology. The purpose of this article is to discuss and analyze the participant’s experiences and understand how Canadian hegemonic and imperial masculinity shapes citizenship and policy in a raced and gendered manner. Within this argument, we explore in the introduction of this article the discourse of masculinity. We also look at the history of Live-in Caregiver Program in Canada. Additionally, we deliberate and examine the participants’ narratives on gendered citizenship, gendered policy, and the nature of their job. The conclusion is based on the narratives of the Filipino male live-in caregivers and their discrimination in caregiving work on the basis of their citizenship and masculinity. The conclusion also look at how they are able to negotiate their salary, their time to work, and how they work with their clients.
Overview of ASEAN Environment, Trans-boundary Haze Pollution Agreement and Public Health, by Nazia Nazeer and Fumitaka Furuoka (University of Malaya, Malaysia)
Abstract: The hazardous consequences of the haze and fires compelled the ten fellow countries of ASEAN to settle a historic regional agreement on trans-boundary haze pollution to confront with this problem. This paper gives an overview of ASEAN environmental condition, failure of Trans-boundary Haze Pollution Agreement and its adverse effect on public health. The study argues that there is a potential in the region to overcome the haze problem; although, the ASEAN haze agreement lacks enforceable obligatory provisions, it still a beneficial vehicle for regional cooperation to eradicate Trans -boundary pollution.
Humanism in Islamic Education: Indonesian References, by Abur Hamdi Usman, Syarul Azman Shaharuddin and Salman Zainal Abidin (International Islamic University College Selangor, Malaysia)
Abstract: In the context of nationality, an educational role is meant to prepare students to face the future and make dignity among other nations. For Indonesia, humanistic values were incorporated and formulated into Pancasila which is often referred to be humanistic-universalistic. This paper aims to review the formulation of national education goals that has a point in sync with the concept of universal humanistic education. It investigates an Islamic education as an integral part of Indonesian national education achieved these goals without contradicting each other with the teachings of Islam. The finding implies that orientation of education system in Islamic educational institution starts from the theocentric philosophy, on which emphasising the importance of the afterlife than the world’s life. In the educational process, students forged intensively to explore the teachings of Islam comprehensively along with its practices. The practice in Islamic teachings explicitly describes the implementation of Islamic humanism. Therefore, a stressing on moral goodness, unity and brotherhood as well as cultivation spirit of independence in Muslim characters become the main pillars of Islamic humanism in the Islamic educational institutions. As a concept, this paper suggests its implementation would need a policy that is conducive to the realisation of a concept that has to be humane and finally, to become a reality. This policy would be a shared responsibility for all components of the nation, from the government as the main policy holder of educational problems to the schools that provide education as well as parents and the community that will benefit from the education. All of this is responsible for the realisation of education that is humanistic for learners.
Book Review: Radicals: Resistance and Protest in Colonial Malaya, by Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied, Dekalb, Northern Illinois University Press. Review by Abu Talib Ahmad
Excerpt: Malay radicals have not been given the recognition they deserved either by the national narrative or the Malaysian government although individually leaders of this group like Dr Burhanuddin Al-Helmy, Ishak Haji Muhammad and even Ahmad Boestamam have been accorded some form of recognition since 1957 notably through museum displays or by states like Pahang and Sarawak. This issue was first publicly raised by Jaafar Hussin in his autobiography Kebenaran (The Truth) which was published by Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka in 1989. Syed Muhd Khairuddin provided various reasons for this situation including what he termed the “Indonesian cum socialist-centric” perspective that placed the Malay radicals in the context of revolutionary developments in Java-Sumatra which provided them ideas, programs and so forth. What emerged from Radicals: Resistance and Protest in Colonial Malaya is a more balance account of the Malay left. In short Syed Muhd Khairudin had rescued them from their peripheral place in the official narrative and to place their legacy in its rightful position in Malaysian political history.